The Double Headed Eagle: Ancient Symbol To Modern Emblem

Found across cultures for millennia, the majestic double headed eagle is one of the most recognizable and impactful symbols in heraldry. If you’ve ever wondered about the meaning and history behind the distinctive two-headed eagle emblem, you’re not alone.

In short, the double headed eagle is a legendary creature whose twin heads symbolize great power and domination of the east and west. It has served as the official coat of arms for mighty empires like the Byzantines and Holy Roman Empire, as well as modern nations including Russia and Albania.

Read on for a deep dive into the ancient origins, symbolism, and modern usage of the iconic double headed eagle as a coat of arms across different civilizations and eras.

Origins and Early History

The origins of the double-headed eagle symbol can be traced back to ancient civilizations such as the Sumerians and Hittites. Both of these ancient cultures used iconography that depicted eagles with two heads.

In Sumerian mythology, the double-headed eagle was associated with the god Anzu, who was believed to have the ability to fly between heaven and earth. The Hittites also used the double-headed eagle as a symbol of power and authority.

Sumerian and Hittite iconography

In Sumerian art, the double-headed eagle was often shown with its wings spread wide, symbolizing its connection to the heavens. It was seen as a divine creature, representing the link between the mortal world and the divine realm.

The Hittites, on the other hand, used the double-headed eagle as a symbol of their military might. It was often depicted on their military standards and shields, serving as a powerful emblem of strength and victory.

The use of the double-headed eagle symbol in ancient iconography demonstrates its significance and influence on early civilizations. It was a powerful symbol that represented both divinity and strength, making it a fitting choice for empires and warriors alike.

Seljuk and Byzantine adoption

The adoption of the double-headed eagle symbol by the Seljuk Turks and the Byzantine Empire further solidified its importance and widespread recognition. The Seljuk Turks, who ruled over parts of Asia Minor and Persia in the 11th and 12th centuries, used the double-headed eagle as a symbol of their imperial power.

It represented their dominance over both the East and the West, symbolizing their ambitions of creating a vast empire.

The Byzantine Empire, which succeeded the Roman Empire and lasted for over a thousand years, also adopted the double-headed eagle as its emblem. It became a prominent symbol of the Byzantine Empire, representing the dual sovereignty of the emperor – as ruler of both the secular and religious realms.

The two heads of the eagle symbolized the unity of the empire, with one head facing east and the other facing west, signifying its dominion over both territories.

The double-headed eagle’s adoption by these powerful empires highlights its significance as a symbol of political and religious authority. It became an emblem of power, unity, and imperial ambitions, leaving a lasting impact on the history and culture of the regions in which it was used.

Meaning and Symbolism

The double-headed eagle is a symbol that has deep meaning and symbolism throughout history. It represents various concepts and ideas, including dual power and control, religious significance, and the contrast between secular and church authority.

Dual power and control

The double-headed eagle is often associated with the idea of dual power and control. The two heads of the eagle facing in opposite directions symbolize balance and the ability to see in all directions.

This symbolizes the idea of having control over both the spiritual and material realms, or the ability to navigate between different worlds or perspectives. It represents the idea of being able to hold power and influence in multiple domains, whether it be political, religious, or social.

Religious significance – John the Apostle

In Christianity, the double-headed eagle is often associated with John the Apostle. According to Christian tradition, John was known as the “beloved disciple” of Jesus and had a deep understanding of both the human and divine nature of Christ.

The double-headed eagle is seen as a representation of John’s ability to bridge the gap between heaven and earth, and his dual role as both a disciple and an apostle. It symbolizes his spiritual insight and the wisdom he gained from his close relationship with Jesus.

Secular vs. church authority

The double-headed eagle also represents the contrast between secular and church authority. In some cultures and historical contexts, the double-headed eagle has been used as a symbol of the dual power between the state and the church.

The two heads of the eagle symbolize the separate spheres of influence and authority held by both the secular ruler and the religious leader. It represents the delicate balance between the two and the need for cooperation and harmony between secular and religious institutions.

Use in Medieval Heraldry

The Double Headed Eagle is a symbol that has a long history in heraldry, particularly during the medieval period. It was prominently used in various regions, representing different empires, principalities, and nobility. Let’s explore its usage in three key areas of medieval heraldry.

Holy Roman Empire

The Holy Roman Empire, which existed from the 10th century until the early 19th century, adopted the Double Headed Eagle as its emblem. It symbolized the empire’s dual authority, representing both the secular and spiritual powers of the ruling emperor.

The eagle’s two heads faced in opposite directions, symbolizing the empire’s dominion over both the East and the West. This powerful symbol became synonymous with the Holy Roman Empire and its vast territories.

Albanian Principalities

The Double Headed Eagle also played a significant role in the heraldry of the Albanian principalities during the medieval period. The eagle was often depicted with its wings spread wide, conveying a sense of strength and majesty.

It was a symbol of the ruling families’ power and authority, representing their connection to the land and their leadership in the region. The Double Headed Eagle became a symbol of national pride and unity for the Albanian people.

Serbian Nobility

In Serbian heraldry, the Double Headed Eagle held great importance among the nobility. It was associated with the Nemanjić dynasty, one of the most influential ruling families in medieval Serbia. The eagle symbolized the dynasty’s dominion and rightful claim to power.

It was often depicted with a crown and various regal attributes, emphasizing the noble lineage and royal status of the ruling family. The Double Headed Eagle became a symbol of prestige and authority among the Serbian nobility.

Modern Relevance

The double-headed eagle, an ancient symbol with a rich history, continues to hold significant modern relevance. It is prominently featured in the coat of arms of the Russian Federation, symbolizing power, sovereignty, and unity.

The double-headed eagle in the Russian coat of arms can be traced back to the Byzantine Empire, where it represented the dual authority of the emperor – both secular and spiritual.

Russian Federation coat of arms

The double-headed eagle in the Russian Federation coat of arms serves as a reminder of the country’s historical roots and its aspirations for a strong and united nation. The two heads of the eagle facing in opposite directions represent the eastern and western parts of Russia, symbolizing its vast territorial expanse.

The eagle holds a scepter and an orb, representing the power and authority of the Russian state.

The use of the double-headed eagle in the Russian coat of arms has been consistent throughout Russian history. It was used by the Russian imperial dynasty, the Romanovs, and later adopted by the Soviet Union.

Today, it is a prominent symbol of the Russian Federation and can be seen on official documents, government buildings, and national emblems.

Other nations and institutions

While the double-headed eagle is most commonly associated with Russia, it has also been adopted by other nations and institutions around the world. In heraldry, the double-headed eagle is seen as a symbol of power, sovereignty, and nobility.

It has been used by countries such as Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Austria, each with its own unique interpretation and symbolism.

Beyond national emblems, the double-headed eagle has found its way into various institutions and organizations. For example, it is featured in the emblem of the Freemasons, where it represents the duality of the organization’s principles and values.

Additionally, it can be found in the logos of sports teams, academic institutions, and even on military insignia.

The modern relevance of the double-headed eagle lies in its ability to transcend time and cultures. It serves as a powerful symbol that connects the past with the present, conveying messages of strength, unity, and authority.

Whether it is displayed on a national flag or an organizational emblem, the double-headed eagle continues to capture the imagination and evoke a sense of pride and identity.


With its majestic form and rich symbolic meaning, the double headed eagle continues to fascinate and inspire. This ancient icon remains a powerful emblem of authority and heritage for many cultures today.

The next time you see the twin-headed eagle, consider its long history as a coat of arms evoking both religious and secular might.

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